Hi @ElleBelle, new science & technology is often confusing! Almost all cases of cervical cancer are caused by persisting ‘high risk’ types of HPV infection. These are types of HPV that we know are likely to cause cancerous changes (there’re many types of HPV that are harmless too). Performing the current pap test alone unfortunately is not accurate enough to identify these particular high risk types of HPV and women may require more investigations if HPV infection continues. The new testing methods are more accurate and will provide more detail. It’s important to know that any unusual signs of vaginal bleeding or pain should always be investigated too.